Phillips, A. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Sound bars have many pros, and they're the right choice for most people: Sound is still way better than integrated speakers. It occurs when two or more parties are represented by the same real estate brokerage. 7. However, in substantive representation, it is not necessary for the representative to have a similar background or shared characteristics with the people he represents. Founding members of the CBC include John Conyers (D-MI), currently the longest-serving member of the House of Representatives, Charles Rangel (D-NY), and Shirley Chisholm, a founder of the NWPC and the first African American woman to be elected to the House of Representatives. The advantages of using tables and graphs to organize data include easy visualization of statistics, poignant descriptions of data, the provision of a summary of the overall work and the interest people show to graphics over words, according to Texas A&M University. Because of such instances, today, many political representatives attempt to practice descriptive representation which promotes racial unity. Shibboleth / Open Athens technology is used to provide single sign-on between your institutions website and Oxford Academic. In the wake of the Civil Rights Movement, African American representatives also began to enter Congress in increasing numbers. Advantages and disadvantages of descriptive representation Descriptive representation is where people are allowed to vote for leaders who they feel mirror their beliefs. 10 Anson Road,#11-20, International Plaza, Singapore-079903. If you cannot sign in, please contact your librarian. Both descriptive and inferential statistics help make sense out of row after row of data! Classic descriptive statistics include mean, min, max, standard deviation, median, skew, kurtosis. A., & Marmor, T. R. (1981). However, they no longer go gentle into that goodnight. All names, acronyms, logos and trademarks displayed on this website are those of their respective owners. I was taught to never judge someone by how they look but upon their actions. The Journal of Politics, 64(4), 11531174. Often times in American history, unselected natural characteristics such as race and ethnicity have served as keen factors permitting unequal treatment of individuals and at creating barriers placing minority groups at a disadvantage when attempting to practice influence over the government. I argue that race and ethnicity matter in congressional oversight of bureaucratic policymaking. Comparative state feminism. Saskatchewan Schools; Research Methods in Psychology; Dr. Mark Burgess and Dr. Stephen Kemp. Currently, forty-six African Americans serve in Congress. The diversity of the country is not reflected in the U.S. Congress, whose current membership is approximately 80 percent male, 82 percent white, and 92 percent Christian. Growing up, racial profiling was never a big deal to me or my family. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Black faces, black interests: The representation of African-Americans in congress. Women in parliaments: Descriptive and substantive representation. $\endgroup . In summary, we use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. European Sociological Review, 20(1), 111. Society member access to a journal is achieved in one of the following ways: Many societies offer single sign-on between the society website and Oxford Academic. 1. Quantitative Methodology. New York: Routledge. Does Descriptive Representation Facilitate Women's Distinctive Voice? The goal of a time restriction is to create a measurable outcome so that metrics can be in place. This could mean different agents from the same brokerage or even the same agent represents multiple clients. Patsy Mink (a), a Japanese American from Hawaii, was the first Asian American woman elected to the House of Representatives. to the people they represent. Descriptivists allow for change and are willing to forgo some rules to fit current norms. The purpose of descriptive research, aside from describing a certain population or situation, is to know the basic knowledge of a study. (1993) have developed a system consisting of a propositional and depictorial partonomy (organization of parts) for reasoning, where the depictorial partonomy reflects the hierarchy proposed in representations for visual processes. Rational deliberation among experts and citizens. (Eds.). The two main types of representation are descriptive and agency representation. These questions are all the more important given that Latinos are the single largest minority group in the country and growing at exponential rates. Roemer, J. ), Redistribution or recognition? Another benefit of descriptive research is that it enables you to determine the behavior of people in a natural setting. Descriptive representation allows for adequate communication in contexts of mistrust What is the relate-ability benefit of Descriptive Representation People will be more likely to communicate more with someone with whom they share a racial identity. The descriptive representation of gender: An anti-essentialist argument. Descriptive Representation: Factors that Contribute to the Underrepresentation of Hispanic-Americans in The U.S. House of Representatives According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the Hispanic population in the United States is fifty-four million. NORA Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, 8(2), 6377. The actual empirical variation and the detailed characteristics of state feminism around the globe are different matters and not the topic of this chapter. Horizontal Communication Often, tracking down survey groups that can provide pertinent data costs a significant amount of time and money. Additionally, how much does the ethnic composition of a district affect the chances that a Latino candidate will be elected in a given district? Cambridge: Harvard University Press. They delineate achievement and motivate students to study hard and perform well. Apart from it, if you've collected data on multiple variables, you can use the Bivariate or Multivariate descriptive statistics to study . And bear in mind that representatives act on behalf of groups not directly included in decision-making so we should also focus on the representation of interests (though this is much harder to do than simply counting, of course). My examination of hearing transcripts from the 107th Congress indicates that minority legislators are more likely than white legislators to participate in racial-oversight hearings but not more likely than whites to participate in social welfare hearings. Weak coalition government:Proportional representation results in a weak and indecisive coalition government since every party wants to act in their best interest or get their own way with things. Descriptive research does not rely on only one type of data; it relies on both quantitative and qualitative Relatable. Cleveland State Law Review, 39(3), 269300. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-51765-4_5, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-51765-4_5, Publisher Name: Palgrave Macmillan, London, eBook Packages: Social SciencesSocial Sciences (R0). Politics & Gender, 1(4), 622637. Experimental research offers the highest levels of control. Pearl Necklace for Women, 18K Gold Staion Neckalce Tin Cup Pearl Instead, proper representation for some is rooted in the racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, gender, and sexual identity of the representatives themselves. One of the biggest advantages of descriptive research is that it allows you to analyze facts and helps you in developing an in-depth understanding of the research problem. Democratic authority: A philosophical framework. 2. Lafont, C. (2006). (2005a). This conclusion is complicated by the fact that some regard equal group level outcomes not as a good in and by itself but as the best available proxy for equal opportunities given available data and conventional statistical techniques (Phillips 2004). Get full access to this article. Saarbrcken: VDM Verlag Dr. Mller. Barry, B. Copyright 2020 Chemtech Speciality India Pvt. European Journal of Political Research, 32, 1852010. - Volume 55 Issue 2. Tests: The Material and Tangible Effects of Descriptive Representation. They also have some other benefits over traditional headphones. Proportional representation is a system of political representation that has been growing by leaps and bounds. When on the institution site, please use the credentials provided by your institution. Tests: The Cognitive Impact of Descriptive Representation. (2002). Equality of opportunity. Copyright 2023 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. We would say that a black constituent is descriptively represented when she has a black member of Congress, regardless of whether that member of Congress . Liza Hollis has been writing for print and online publications since 2003. In academic and professional environments, researchers often take on research projects before making definitive statements or taking action involving the subject matter. In the achievement of this endeavour, first, I have examined the legislative initiatives of the NP in the period January 2012 - June . This is a lesson from the tutorial, American Congress and you are encouraged to log Companies can collect data first-hand based on stats and unbiased information. How Do Parliamentarians Define Descriptive Representation? If you are doing a comparison between two products, you might give one product an unfair advantage to get the desired results. Why democracy? When on the society site, please use the credentials provided by that society. 6. It is an Efficient Form of Government. Descriptive research designs also offer a unique means of data collection. It is based on the belief that constituents are more effectively represented by legislators who are similar to them in key demographic characteristics as gender, ethnicity, or religion. Estlund, D. (2008). It is tough to validate an accurate and complete representation of a study. Sociologist. It is different from exploratory research in that it is typically more focused on a certain unknown or unproven aspect of the project. The future of feminism. Ultimately, whether or not bone conduction headphones are . Struggles to expand the breadth of political and civil rights in the United States have been critical to fostering greater inclusion and equality for racial/ethnic minorities in America. Mansbridge, J. Mansbridge, J. The collection of data is quick and easy to conduct, especially when doing surveys. ), Deliberative systems: Deliberative democracy at the large scale. West European Politics, 36(3), 447473. Reading a hundred pages may not give any scope to make a decision. - 136.243.94.45. List of Pros of Bicameral Legislature. You might also like. This may help you better understand research findings, whether reported in the mainstream 625 Words 3 Pages Decent Essays The pros: Its the best way to collect data without bias. Here you will find options to view and activate subscriptions, manage institutional settings and access options, access usage statistics, and more. Get Access. : LOCAL DESCRIPTIVE REPRESENTATION, Do Gender Quotas Work? Register or login to receive notifications when there's a reply to your comment or update on this information. The descriptive evaluation is the process of gathering, analyzing and interpreting information using different tools 2 Winter 2014, Intersecting Interests: Gender, Race and Congressional Attention to Womens Issues, RETHINKING WOMEN'S SUBSTANTIVE REPRESENTATION. Volume 52, Issue 3. The rapid increase in the minority population has led to some backlash and challenges for law, Descriptive Representation In The United States, Descriptive representation has been on the rise for some time. See below. A contingent yes. Ethics, 91, 431450. 2. In many areas of public administration and policy, the importance of descriptive representation or shared identity and perceived shared experience for racial and ethnic minorities is well documented. Aldershot: Ashgate. Proportional representation, sometimes called simply "PR," is defined as an "electoral system in which parties gain seats in proportion to the number of votes cast for them." This is different than a direct system of representation, where each seat is put up to a vote for a specific candidate, regardless of what party to which they associate. Toggle navigation. Pros & Cons of Existential Counseling . Citizenship, Gender and Diversity. Between facts and norms. \(\overset{\underset{\mathrm{def}}{}}{=} \). Signs, 19(3), 630657. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Pros are listed as arguments in favor of making a particular decision or action. Surprising as it may seem, some teachers don't think grades are a useful tool. Research Fellowship Program Other Program and Initiatives Hernes, H. (1987). Would perfect mobility be perfect? In the face of the modern impatience with pages (or even paragraphs) of descriptive narrative, its easy for writers to overreact and decide to avoid description altogether. As Shaw and McKay, found out that the rates of crime were not evenly spread out across areas of the city, and around the city. It evaluates empirical evidence on the impact of race, gender, and ethnicity on the behavior of legislators. While qualitative research may be hard to argue against because it involves numbers and tests, questions of the researchers motive and method often arise. Descriptive representation as an intrinsic good Theories of descriptive representation also suggest that voters may value representatives of the same race as an intrinsic good, regardless of any (perceived) substantive representation that accompanies it. Young, I. M. (2000). The purpose of descriptive research, aside from describing a certain population or situation, is to know the basic knowledge of a study. African Americans were routinely deprived of the opportunity to participate in democracy, and Hispanics and other minority groups were fairly insignificant in number and excluded by the states. Racial profiling and stereotyping are just two forms in which minorities have been facing for years. Yet, demographically speaking, Congress as a whole is still a long way from where the country is and remains largely white, male, and wealthy. Cornell, D. (1995). Highlight the major advantages and disadvantages of the product, process, strategy, idea, etc. These are part of business analytics, which extract value from your business data. In this contribution we distinguish the substantive and the descriptive approach of representation. There are many benefits of including minorities of power in decision-making so-called descriptive representation. Representation is crucial for democracy: good representation helps to increase re-sponsiveness, foster electoral turnout, increase political interest and include minori-ties. License Terms: Download for free at http://cnx.org/contents/9e28f580-0d1b-4d72-8795-c48329947ac2@1. Sloman (1985) has also argued the pros and cons of analogical representations, and has concluded that a variety of representation formalismsincluding those specialized for spatial reasoningare important to AI problem solving. Swiss-Subsaharan Africa Migration Inaugural call, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007123404000134, Swiss Forum for Migration and Population Studies. Descriptive research has advantages and disadvantages with researchers accounting for positive and negative variables. The closest comparative system would be the representative republic, such as used in the United States. Diagnostic analytics gives the reason why something happened. Descriptive representation is a way of thinking about representation in which it is thought to be important that representatives have the same racial, gender, ethnic, religious, or educational backgrounds as their constituents. Welfare state and woman power: Essays in state feminism. Olsen, J. P. (2013). Morone, J. The electoral advantage of the incumbents presents a stumbling block on the advancement of new groups into the institution. Princeton: Princeton University Press. For example, if you are a representative for an ad agency, you may conduct research to find out consumer opinion on a certain product. Comparing two schools within two separate districts instead of simply two schools in the city will add an additional layer of depth to this analysis, in that differences in the districts particular policies can be examined as to whether or not they contribute to the findings. Mellom fag og feminisme: Kvinneforskning i statsvitenskap. New York: Verso. Martin, J. R. (1994). Peter, F. (2011). When determining whether or not legislators are representing their constituents interests, scholars using voting studies may overstate the role of strategic factors, such as reelection goals and constituent influence, while understating the effect of descriptive characteristics. Conclusion. 1. (2004). Pros of Representative Democracy. Nimantran Patra In Marathi For Birthday, The Pros And Cons Of Using Clicker. The data from a descriptive research project can be collected from one person or a small group of people. (2012). Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content: Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Compare the gains and losses of a proposal in the decision-making process. There are many time restrictions that are placed on research methods. Visualize the benefits and drawbacks of the solution. The maximization use of an executive law-making body is the crucial advantage that representative democracy can offer. London: Routledge. Since feedback is a necessary component of first-class customer service and workforce optimization . By making the decision-making process more . Undocumented Youth and Collective Representation in the U.S. Congress, Good Practices of Indigenous Political Participation: Maori Participation in New Zealand Elective Bodies, Race, Bureaucracy, and Symbolic Representation: Interactions Between Citizens and Police, Conditioning Descriptive Representation: Institutional Moderation of Unique Group Perspectives in Legislative Debates, Political Participation of Australian Muslims, Minority Representation, Empowerment, and Participation, Morals or money? This is the case for women who remain numerically under-represented in legislatures around the world, but also ethnic minority groups, and other minorities. Towards a European union gender equality index. Namely, the institutional design of the state legislature matters in terms of electoral responsiveness, with Florida and New Mexico the most responsive, and New York and the U.S. House the least responsive to the election of Latino legislators. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds toupgrade your browser. The rise of the unelected. This allows more people to benefit from the decisions the government makes when compared with other types of ruling structures. In S. Besson & J. S. Mart (Eds. Unless specified, this website is not in any way affiliated with any of the institutions featured. People still have a voice. Proportional Representation 2. These are issues that have left minorities feeling as though they are belittled and not treated as fairly as the majority in our society. Princeton: Princeton University Press. The debate about whether grades help or hinder student learning is as old as the U.S. grading system itself, dating back to the late 1800s. Democracy and disagreement. Her work has appeared on various digital properties, including USAToday.com. that: The most affecting descriptive writing results from an author's providing not a linguistic blueprint of a library but the raw material (the air tinged with the scent of old pages, the shafts of dusty light through the window slats, the whispers, like trickling water, of the librarians behind the oval reference desk) from which the reader can erect her own library. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Delegation of tasks to others offers the following benefits: 1. While Descriptive research is a form of research that relies on a variety of different techniques to organize information. For example, raw numbers may show that people are more prone to a specific behavior, but an interview will explain why this behavior is occurring. There are, however, practical limitations to including different groups and subgroups in legislatures. The affirmative action controversy. (2014). The extent to which a representative resembles those being represented. Holst, C. (2014). Firms, boards and gender quotas: Comparative perspectives. https://thenounproject.com/term/share/7671/, CC BY. Professionals often use descriptive statistics to communicate simple trends within a data set. October 2004. so that you can track your progress. document.getElementById( "ak_js_1" ).setAttribute( "value", ( new Date() ).getTime() ); Organizing and providing relevant educational content, resources and information for students. Political Therorists, Parliamentarians and the Meaning of Unequal Representation. . New York: Oxford University Press. Access to content on Oxford Academic is often provided through institutional subscriptions and purchases. 1. blurted this. As graphical representations are exhibited through numerical figures, tables, or graphs, it usually involves fewer errors and mistakes. The 113th Congress, has twenty-eight Hispanic U.S. 38 E Locust St, Mechanicsburg, Pa, The brevity by which descriptive investigations are carried out means that their costs are not high, compared to other types of investigations. While Congress is dominantly a male, white institution, the creation of majority-minority districts in the early 1990s resulted in the election of African-Americans and Hispanics to Congress. This forces the government to dissolve the coalition. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Required fields are marked *. "American Government", OpenStax, OpenStax; Rice University. Should Congress Look Like America? ), States of democracy: Gender and politics in Europe. Studies of the representation of minority interests in the era following the enactment Although the federal government of the United States is said to strive to construct a homogeneous nation when it comes to equal rights and opportunities for its citizens in different states and cities, there have been numerous historical occurrences that demonstrate opposing aims. Another argument in favor of descriptive research is that once information is assembled, there are many ways to apply it. Galligan, Y. (Eds. The Pros and Cons of Writing Description. African Americans made up the largest percentage, with forty-eight members, while Latinos accounted for thirty-two members, up from nineteen just over a decade before. The first disadvantage is that descriptive research requires more skills. For example, if you are assembling a questionnaire, you might load the questions to direct the reader to answer a certain way. The family has visited numerous places throughout the United States, however, none are as memorable as Atlanta, Georgia. Representing Diversity. Descriptivists allow for change and are willing to forgo some rules to fit current norms. This photo shows the founding members of the Congressional Black Caucus, which at the time of its founding in 1971 had only thirteen members. Holst, C. (2010). Descriptive statistics for the importance of the pros and cons, knowledge, and the percent of time participants used KICs. ), Deliberative democracy and its discontents. Lexington: D. C. Heath. Summarize a large amount of data in a visual, easily interpretable form Make trends easier to highlight than tables do it helps in studying patterns over long period of time it is used to compare data sets. Learn how your comment data is processed. Gendered Citizenship and the Politics of Representation, https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-51765-4_5, Shipping restrictions may apply, check to see if you are impacted, Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. Descriptive research does not rely on only one type of data; it relies on both quantitative and qualitative research. It is tough to validate an accurate and complete representation of a study. That structure makes it easier for extremist views to find official representation. systems than the old and traditional ones (Tawil, 2002). Perhaps the strongest argument for descriptive research is the fact that it offers well-rounded support for a thesis. Acta Politica, 4, 389403. Pitkin, H. F. (1972). Descriptive representation is a representation in which representatives have similar backgrounds to the people they represent. While descriptive statistics describe data, inferential statistics allows you to make predictions from data. Women-centred and intersectional state feminism, state feminism inside and outside a welfare state context, and state feminism more and less democratized are compared, and it is argued that from the cost side, descriptive representation is more recommendable in a democratized, intersectional state feminist regime than in a women-centred technocratic one, whereas the effects of the welfare state variable on descriptive representation costs are more mixed. University of Neuchtel. Democracy and the new separation of powers. Descriptive studies include case reports, case-series, qualitative studies and surveys (cross-sectional) studies, which measure the frequency of several factors, and hence the size of the problem. Hence, the debate about descriptive representation is clearly in need of a more contextualized assessment of its pros and cons. Democratic legitimacy. It could be argued that PR delivers fairer treatment of minority parties and independent candidates. Marion Maddox, Kais Al-momani, Niki N. N. Dados, Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe, Leda Sutlovic, Toma Deelan, Danica Fink-Hafner, Jasminka Pesut, Centre for Peace and Social Justice Papers, The Institutional and Demographic Determinants of Latino Representation in State Legislatures, Legislative Oversight and the Substantive Representation of Black and Latino Interests in Congress, Women's Legislative Representation and Gender Equality: What Works in the Absence of a'Critical Mass', Quota Laws, Representation of Women and the Role of Civil Society Organizations, The Social and Political Forces Shaping Legislator-Constituent Relations: Expanding an Empirical Theory of Representation, Political Participation of Muslims in Australia, Citizen Panels and the Concept of Representation. Rawls, J. How Gender Composition and Decision Rules Affect Deliberation Tali Mendelberg Princeton University Christopher F. Karpowitz Brigham Young University Nicholas Goedert Washington University in St. Louis Does low descriptive representation inhibit substantive representation for women in deliberating groups?